How to Invest Money: A Guide for Beginners | The Motley Fool (2024)

First of all, congratulations! Investing your money can be an extremely reliable way to build wealth over time. If you're a first-time investor, we're here to help you get started. It's time to make your money work for you.

Before you put your money into the stock market or other investments, you'll need a basic understanding of how to invest your money the right way. Unfortunately, there's no one-size-fits-all answer here.

The best way to invest your money is the way that works best for you. To figure that out, you'll want to consider your investing style, your budget, and your risk tolerance.

How to invest money

  1. Identify your investing style.
  2. Determine your budget for investing.
  3. Assess your risk tolerance.
  4. Decide what to invest your money in.

1. Your style

1. Your style

How much time do you want to put into investing your money?

The investing world has two major camps when it comes to the ways to invest money: Active investing and passive investing. Both can be great ways to build wealth, as long as you focus on the long term and aren't just looking for short-term gains. But your lifestyle, budget, risk tolerance, and interests might give you a preference for one type.

Active investing

Active investing means taking time to research investments yourself and constructing and maintaining your portfolio on your own. In simple terms, if you plan to buy and sell individual stocks through an online broker, you're planning to be an active investor. To successfully be an active investor, you'll need three things:

  • Time: Active investing requires lots of homework. You'll need to research stocks. You'll also need to perform some basic investment analysis and keep up with your investments after you buy them.
  • Knowledge: All the time in the world won't help if you don't know how to analyze investments and properly research stocks. You should at least be familiar with some of the basics of how to analyze stocks before you invest in them.
  • Desire: Many people simply don't want to spend hours on their investments. And since passive investments have historically produced strong returns, there's absolutely nothing wrong with this approach. As Warren Buffett has said regarding passive investing, "It isn't necessary to do extraordinary things to get extraordinary results." Active investing certainly has the potential for superior returns, but you have to want to spend the time to get it right.

It's also important to understand what we don't mean by active investing. Active investing doesn't mean buying and selling stocks frequently, it doesn't mean day trading, and it doesn't mean buying stocks that you think are going to go up over the next few weeks or months.

Passive investing

On the other hand, passive investing is the equivalent of an airplane on autopilot as compared to one flying manually. You'll still get good results over the long run, and the effort required is far less.

In a nutshell, passive investing involves putting your money to work in investment vehicles where someone else is doing the hard work. Mutual fund investing is an example of this strategy. Or you can use a hybrid approach. For example, you can hire a financial or investment advisor -- or use a robo-advisor to construct and implement an investment strategy on your behalf.

Passive investing

More simplicity, more stability, more predictability

  • Hands-off approach.
  • Moderate returns.
  • Tax advantages.

Active investing

More work, more risk, more potential reward

  • You do the investing yourself (or through a portfolio manager).
  • Lots of research.
  • Potential for huge, life-changing returns.

2. Your budget

2. Your budget

How much money do you have to invest?

You may think you need a large sum of money to start a portfolio, but you can begin investing with $100. We also have great ideas for investing $1,000.

Here's the point. The amount of money you're starting with isn't the most important thing. Instead, the big question is whether you're financially ready to invest and to invest frequently over time.

One important step to take before investing is to establish an emergency fund. This is cash set aside in a form that makes it available for quick withdrawal, such as a savings account. Most investments, whether stocks, mutual funds, or real estate, have some level of risk. You never want to find yourself forced to divest (or sell) these investments in a time of need. The emergency fund is your safety net to avoid this.

Most financial planners suggest an ideal amount for an emergency fund is enough to cover six months' worth of expenses. Although this is certainly a good target, you don't need this much set aside before you can invest -- the point is that you just don't want to have to sell your investments every time you get a flat tire or have some other unforeseen expense pop up.

It's also a smart idea to get rid of any high-interest debt (like credit cards) before starting to invest. Think of it this way -- the stock market has historically produced returns of 9% to 10% annually over long periods. If you invest your money at these types of returns and simultaneously pay 25% interest (the average credit card interest rate in December 2023) to your creditors, you're putting yourself in a position to lose money over the long run.

3. Your risk tolerance

3. Your risk tolerance

How much financial risk are you willing to take?

Not all investments are successful. Each type of investment has its own level of risk, but this risk is often correlated with returns.

It's important to find a balance between maximizing the returns on your money and finding a comfortable risk level. For example, high-quality bonds, such as Treasury bonds, offer predictable returns with very low risk, but they also yielded relatively low returns of between 4% and 5% as of late 2023, depending on the maturity term you chose and the current interest rate environment. By contrast, stock returns can vary widely depending on the company and time frame. However, the overall stock market has historically produced average returns of almost 10% per year.

Even within the broad categories of stocks and bonds, there can be huge differences in risk.

For example, a Treasury bond or AAA-rated corporate bond is a very low-risk investment. However, these will likely pay relatively low interest rates. Savings accounts represent an even lower risk but offer a lower reward.

On the other hand, a high-yield bond can produce greater income but will come with a greater risk of default. In the world of stocks, the spectrum of risk between blue chip stocks like Apple (AAPL -0.9%) and penny stocks is enormous.

One good solution for beginners is using a robo-advisor to formulate an investment plan that meets your risk tolerance and financial goals. In a nutshell, a robo-advisor is a service offered by a brokerage. It will construct and maintain a portfolio of stock- and bond-based index funds designed to maximize your return potential while keeping your risk level appropriate for your needs.

Definition Icon

Divest

Divesting means getting rid of or reducing your position in an asset. Divestiture can occur at the individual or corporate level.

What should you invest your money in?

What should you invest your money in?

Here's the tough question; unfortunately, there isn't a perfect answer. The best type of investment depends on your investment goals. But based on the guidelines discussed above, you should be in a far better position to decide what you should invest in.

For example, if you have a relatively high risk tolerance, as well as the time and desire to research individual stocks (and to learn how to do it right), that could be the best way to go. If you have a low risk tolerance but want higher returns than you'd get from a savings account, bond investments (or bond funds) might be more appropriate.

Definition Icon

Buy-and-Hold Strategy

A strategy that entails buying stocks or other securities and not selling them for long periods of time, sometimes decades.

If you're like most Americans and don't want to spend hours of your time on your portfolio, putting your money in passive investments like index funds or mutual funds can be the smart choice. And if you really want to take a hands-off approach, a robo-advisor could be right for you.

Related investing topics

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How to Invest in Index Funds in 2024Index funds track a particular index and can be a good way to invest.
How to Invest in ETFs for BeginnersExchange-traded funds let an investor buy lots of stocks and bonds at once.

The bottom line on investing

Investing money may seem intimidating, especially if you've never done it before. However, if you figure out how you want to invest, how much money you should invest, and your risk tolerance, you'll be well positioned to make smart decisions with your money that will serve you well for decades to come.

How to Invest Money FAQs

How do I invest my money to make money?

There are many different ways you can invest money, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), certificates of deposit (CDs), savings accounts, and more. The best option for you depends on your particular risk tolerance and financial goals.

How do I invest $100?

Even if you're starting with just $100, there are several ways you can get started. You can start an investment account with a robo-advisor, or you can open a brokerage account that offers fractional share investing, which can let you buy shares of several of your favorite companies with just $100.

Where to invest money to get good returns?

Over time, the stock market has produced annualized returns of 9% to 10%, although performance can vary dramatically from year to year. On the other hand, fixed-income investments like bonds historically have generated 4% to 6% per year, but with far less volatility.

How do I invest money in stocks?

In addition to starting a brokerage account and buying stocks directly, there are several ways to invest in the stock market. You can buy ETFs or mutual funds that track a certain stock index or aim to create a market-beating portfolio. Or, you can open an account with a robo-advisor to automate the process and get exposure to stocks without needing a ton of knowledge to get started.

Matthew Frankel, CFP® has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has positions in and recommends Apple. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

As an investment expert with extensive knowledge in the field, I've been actively involved in the financial markets for several years. My experience includes successful investment strategies, portfolio management, and a deep understanding of various investment vehicles. I've closely monitored market trends, conducted in-depth research on individual stocks, and navigated through both bull and bear markets. This hands-on experience has equipped me with the insights needed to guide investors in making informed decisions.

Now, let's delve into the concepts discussed in the article:

1. Investing Styles: Active vs. Passive Investing

Active Investing:

  • Definition: Active investing involves hands-on management of your portfolio, requiring time, knowledge, and a desire to delve into market research.
  • Requirements for Active Investing:
    • Time: Significant time commitment for research and portfolio management.
    • Knowledge: Understanding fundamental analysis and stock research.
    • Desire: Willingness to invest time for potentially superior returns.
  • Key Point: Not synonymous with frequent trading or day trading.

Passive Investing:

  • Definition: Passive investing is a more hands-off approach, relying on investment vehicles like index funds or mutual funds.
  • Characteristics:
    • More simplicity, stability, and predictability.
    • Moderate returns with less effort.
    • Tax advantages in some cases.
  • Options: Utilizing robo-advisors or hiring financial advisors for a more automated approach.

2. Budget Considerations

Investment Budget:

  • Importance: The amount you start with isn't the crucial factor; readiness to invest and consistent contributions matter.
  • Preliminary Steps:
    • Establishing an emergency fund.
    • Clearing high-interest debts before investing.

3. Risk Tolerance Assessment

Risk Tolerance:

  • Definition: The willingness to accept financial risk for potential returns.
  • Balancing Act: Finding a balance between maximizing returns and staying within a comfortable risk level.
  • Examples: Contrasting risks in bonds (e.g., Treasury bonds) with potential returns in stocks.
  • Solution: Using robo-advisors for beginners, ensuring an investment plan aligns with risk tolerance and financial goals.

4. Choosing Investments

Investment Selection:

  • No Perfect Answer: The best type of investment depends on individual goals.
  • Considerations:
    • High-risk tolerance may lean towards individual stock research.
    • Low-risk tolerance might favor bond investments or passive options like index funds.
  • Long-Term Strategies:
    • Buy-and-Hold Strategy: Holding securities for extended periods without frequent selling.

5. Investing FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Ways to Invest: Diversified options, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, ETFs, CDs, and savings accounts.
  • Starting with $100: Options like robo-advisors or fractional share investing.
  • Returns: Historical stock market returns of 9-10%, while fixed-income investments offer lower volatility.
  • Stock Market Investment: Direct stock purchases, ETFs, mutual funds, or robo-advisors for automation.

6. Conclusion:

Investing money may seem intimidating initially, but understanding your investing style, budget, and risk tolerance will pave the way for smart decisions. The article emphasizes the importance of thoughtful consideration before diving into the world of investments, providing a comprehensive guide for both beginners and those looking to refine their strategies.

How to Invest Money: A Guide for Beginners | The Motley Fool (2024)

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